The fall of Constantinople

siege constantinople

    “The capture of Constantinople – I tell you the truth – threw me into a despair from which I lack the means to rise up when I think about the slavery of so many men, from what great fortune in what abyss of misery they have fallen, the ineffable beauty of the churches and the buildings, then I think that until now we had told ourselves that freedom and slavery consisted for the wise in something else from what is mentioned generally by common people, but now the meaning we gave to that distinction escapes me” from a letter of Cardinal Basilios Bessarion to Theodorus Gaza

The last siege of Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, took place in 1453. The Ottoman Turks, led by Sultan Mehmed II, captured the city on May 29, after about two months.

Although Constantinople had the safest and most impenetrable city walls of Europe, the Ottomans possessed a new war instrument, the cannon, able to chip away the Theodosian medieval walls . Despite the advanced technology used by Ottomans, that, however, was not entirely effective in destroying the Byzantines bastions, the Ottomans outnumbered Constantinople’s defensers: the ratio between Byzantines and Ottomans was one against eleven.

By the fall of the capital and the death in battle of Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus, the Eastern Roman Empire after 1058 years ceased to exist.

 The preceding Solar Eclipse

A solar eclipse was visible from Constantinople on 11th of December 1452. The obscuration lasted for 25 minutes and had its maximum at 8:29. Its effects, according to Ptolemy, would have started in four months after the eclipse and would have lasted for almost 6 months. The intensification of the effects would have been expected in the first third of its duration, that is, in the first two months from the beginning of the events.

The siege started on 6th of April, right after almost 4 months following the eclipse. Constantinople was captured on 29th of May, after almost two month later as predicted by ptolemaic doctrine.

Solar Eclipse 1452

The luminaries and the horoscope, the angle closer to the syzygy, are in the last degrees of Sagittarius,  in the domicile of Jupiter and the terms of Mars. The Moon is separating from Mars in its domicile in Aries and after the syzygy is applying to Saturn in its exaltation in Libra. Therefore the luminaries are besieged by the malefics which are both angular. Since the syzygy occurred in the terms of Mars and the Moon is separating from Mars, Mars rules over the eclipse.

The eclipse occurred close to the opposition of the horoscope of Constantinople’s inauguration and so in opposition to Venus and Jupiter in the inauguration chart. Moreover the Moon of inauguration is placed on the VIII house cusp of the eclipse and the Sun of inauguration is in opposition to Venus in the eclipse chart.

The syzygy before the beginning of the siege

Syzygy before the siege

Let’s look at the syzygy preceding the siege which started on April 6th.

The Moon and the Sun are respectively at the upper and at the lower pivot.  The Moon is applying to Mars. Mars in this chart is exactly in the same degree of Mars in the inauguration chart (15° Gemini). Moreover the star Altair of nature of Jupiter and  Mars is rising with Laguna, the nebula of nature of Mars and Moon.

The Lunar Eclipse during the siege

During the siege a lunar eclipse occurred at sunset on May 22nd. The event was considered an inauspicious omen by the defenders of the city. The lunar eclipse lasted for 1 hour and 10 minutes, so its effects would had been expected in the following month. A week later the city was captured.

Lunar Eclipse 1453

In this eclipse the axis of the luminaries is very close to the position of Mars and Mercury in the horoscope of Constantinople’s inauguration. Let’s note that Mars is the out-of-sect malefic in the inauguration chart.

The final assault

On May 29th shortly after midnight the final assault began. The Sultan Mehmed II  was advised by the astrologers to attack at a propitious time.

Final Assualt.png


The attackers are signified by the ascendent in Pisces and its lord, Jupiter. The defenders by occident in Virgo and its lord, Mercury. The city is the IC in Gemini and its lord Mercury.

We see here Jupiter in the I house dignified by triplicity. Mercury instead is peregrine and the Moon is separating from Saturn and applying to Mercury translating the light from Saturn to Mercury. Note that Saturn is on the cusp of the VIII place and it is its lord. Moreover Jupiter receives Mercury in Cancer making a dexter square to it.


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