Tag Archives: Besieged

The fall of Constantinople

siege constantinople

    “The capture of Constantinople – I tell you the truth – threw me into a despair from which I lack the means to rise up when I think about the slavery of so many men, from what great fortune in what abyss of misery they have fallen, the ineffable beauty of the churches and the buildings, then I think that until now we had told ourselves that freedom and slavery consisted for the wise in something else from what is mentioned generally by common people, but now the meaning we gave to that distinction escapes me” from a letter of Cardinal Basilios Bessarion to Theodorus Gaza

The last siege of Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, took place in 1453. The Ottoman Turks, led by Sultan Mehmed II, captured the city on May 29, after about two months.

Although Constantinople had the safest and most impenetrable city walls of Europe, the Ottomans possessed a new war instrument, the cannon, able to chip away the Theodosian medieval walls . Despite the advanced technology used by Ottomans, that, however, was not entirely effective in destroying the Byzantines bastions, the Ottomans outnumbered Constantinople’s defensers: the ratio between Byzantines and Ottomans was one against eleven.

By the fall of the capital and the death in battle of Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus, the Eastern Roman Empire after 1058 years ceased to exist.

 The preceding Solar Eclipse

A solar eclipse was visible from Constantinople on 11th of December 1452. The obscuration lasted for 25 minutes and had its maximum at 8:29. Its effects, according to Ptolemy, would have started in four months after the eclipse and would have lasted for almost 6 months. The intensification of the effects would have been expected in the first third of its duration, that is, in the first two months from the beginning of the events.

The siege started on 6th of April, right after almost 4 months following the eclipse. Constantinople was captured on 29th of May, after almost two month later as predicted by ptolemaic doctrine.

Solar Eclipse 1452

The luminaries and the horoscope, the angle closer to the syzygy, are in the last degrees of Sagittarius,  in the domicile of Jupiter and the terms of Mars. The Moon is separating from Mars in its domicile in Aries and after the syzygy is applying to Saturn in its exaltation in Libra. Therefore the luminaries are besieged by the malefics which are both angular. Since the syzygy occurred in the terms of Mars and the Moon is separating from Mars, Mars rules over the eclipse.

The eclipse occurred close to the opposition of the horoscope of Constantinople’s inauguration and so in opposition to Venus and Jupiter in the inauguration chart. Moreover the Moon of inauguration is placed on the VIII house cusp of the eclipse and the Sun of inauguration is in opposition to Venus in the eclipse chart.

The syzygy before the beginning of the siege

Syzygy before the siege

Let’s look at the syzygy preceding the siege which started on April 6th.

The Moon and the Sun are respectively at the upper and at the lower pivot.  The Moon is applying to Mars. Mars in this chart is exactly in the same degree of Mars in the inauguration chart (15° Gemini). Moreover the star Altair of nature of Jupiter and  Mars is rising with Laguna, the nebula of nature of Mars and Moon.

The Lunar Eclipse during the siege

During the siege a lunar eclipse occurred at sunset on May 22nd. The event was considered an inauspicious omen by the defenders of the city. The lunar eclipse lasted for 1 hour and 10 minutes, so its effects would had been expected in the following month. A week later the city was captured.

Lunar Eclipse 1453

In this eclipse the axis of the luminaries is very close to the position of Mars and Mercury in the horoscope of Constantinople’s inauguration. Let’s note that Mars is the out-of-sect malefic in the inauguration chart.

The final assault

On May 29th shortly after midnight the final assault began. The Sultan Mehmed II  was advised by the astrologers to attack at a propitious time.

Final Assualt.png


The attackers are signified by the ascendent in Pisces and its lord, Jupiter. The defenders by occident in Virgo and its lord, Mercury. The city is the IC in Gemini and its lord Mercury.

We see here Jupiter in the I house dignified by triplicity. Mercury instead is peregrine and the Moon is separating from Saturn and applying to Mercury translating the light from Saturn to Mercury. Note that Saturn is on the cusp of the VIII place and it is its lord. Moreover Jupiter receives Mercury in Cancer making a dexter square to it.

Expo Milano 2015

expo2015_logoExpo Milano 2015 is the Universal Exhibition that Milan, Italy, will host from May 1 to October 31, 2015. The Expo theme is food and it is going to be, as the organizers say, an occasion in which “stimulating each country’s creativity and promoting innovation for a sustainable future, Expo 2015 will give everyone the opportunity to find out about, and taste, the world’s best dishes, while discovering the best of the agri-food and gastronomic traditions of each of the exhibitor countries.”

The Expo can be an opportunity for the city of Milan and Italy to show the richness and quality of their food and to welcome the variety and diversity of food from all over the world. At the same time can be a sort of showroom for Italian products and maybe it will affect positively the Italian economy which at the moment is in a continuing stagnation. While some people are very optimistic and enthusiastic other ones are skeptic and think that will be only a waste of money and resources which will benefit only major industrial and economic international groups and national profiteers. Moreover during the construction works of the Expo area, buildings and national pavillions scandals have arisen due to delays, mismanagement, and mafia infiltrations.

Let’s have a look for the chart of the opening on the inaugural day planned for 1st May at 10 o’clock.

Expo Inauguration

The horoscope is in Cancer in Moon domicile, Jupiter exaltation, Venus triplicity and bound. The Medium Coeli is  in Pisces in Jupiter domicile, Venus exaltation, Venus triplicity and bounds of Mercury. The Moon is moving from Saturn applying to Jupiter. Here the Moon, Lord of the Ascendent applying to Jupiter, Lord of the supernal angle, is a good sign that the Expo will reach its goal. Jupiter is dignified by the secondary triplicity, being the nocturnal ruler of the fire triplicity, so is not peregrine but it has a quite weak dignity. Jupiter is in the second house indicating that the Expo will produce earnings. Venus the planet which has the most essential dignities over the Ascendent, the Medium Coeli, the Moon and actually over the the five aphetic points: Sun, Moon, Ascendent, Part of Fortune and Prenatal Syzygy, is in the XII house, peregrine, feralis and so It’s not in the position to express itself and indeed can be  counterproductive. Mercury is the Lord of the Chart, being dignified by domicile, secondary triplicity and term and being evening, occidental in the epicycle, in the succedent IX house.  Since Mercury has dignity in Medium Coeli and it is in the XI house which is the resource and helper of the X house Mercury can be a valid help to reach the success. But Mercury is opposing Saturn in the zodiac and in mundo and conjunct Mars in mundo. This is a very strong aspect. Mercury is besieged by the malefic Saturn and Mars so the actions will be unproductive and self-defeating. Mars and Mercury are also configured by a right square in mundo to Jupiter. Those aspects between Mercury, Mars, Saturn and Jupiter let us suppose that the actions will be vain and will bring discord, hatred, accusations and scandals. Moreover Saturn is with Arcturus and Antares, the Heart of Scorpio, stars of nature of Mars and Jupiter. Stade says about Saturn with Arcturus that is a sign of assets dissipation. So behind the Expo success will emerge the difficulties, efforts, costs  and scandals through which it has been realized and that will make clear the real value of the event.